02 December 2010

Ukuhlela ulwazi nenkumbulo zoluntu kwiMyuziyam yaseAlbany


Bongani Mgijima: IMyuziyam yase Albany ,eRhini

Iphepha elifundwe kwiNkomfa Yesizwe Yesibini ka SEK Mqhayi
EBerlin, 29-30 Novemba 2010

Ndifuna ukusivelela esi sihloko sam ngenye inkalo. Uvimba wolwazi ungolu hlobo uMbembe awuchaza ngalo “ sisakhiwo, umqondiso weziko loluntu, elinye lamalungu amiselwe ngurhulumente” ngamanye amaxesha iba “luthotho lwamaxwebhu afumaneka kwesi sakhiwo”. Ukuze la maxwebhu anike intsingiselo kufanele ukuba akhethwe, alungiswe aze acaciswe ngendlela apha eyenza ukuba kubelula ukuwafumana nokuwasebenzisa. Nangona kunjalo, mna ndifuna ukunidanisa ndithethe ngemyuziyam njengesisele solwazi. Ngokwenza njalo ndizakuthetha ngomboniso owawuboniswe kwi-Albany Museum eseGrahamstown.

Eyam injongo kukucacisa ukuba kwenzeka ntoni xa ulwazi olukuvimba okanye imyuziyam isiba sisisele solwazi izifumanisa ke isakhelwa umkhanya luluntu. Umboniso esizakuthetha ngawo ideclassification wawujolise kwindlela apho iimyuziyam ingakumbi i-Albany Museum ezithe ngokwemisebenzi yazo nangempazamo enkulu zazibona sele zinegalelo elikhulu ekwakheni ulwazi lobuhlanga.

Mhlawumbi kuya kubaluleka ukuba ndichaze ngeendlela ezisebenza ngayo iimyuziyam phambi kokuba ndingene emxholweni .Iimyuziyam ingakumbi ezo zingembali yenkcubeko zizingca ngokuqokelela izinto zakudala.Ezi ngqokelela zezinto zifumaneka ngokuthi kubekho abantu abahamba beziqokelela, zithengwe kodwa kumaxesha amaninzi zifumaneka ngokuthi zibe sisipho. Xa loo nto ifumanekileyo ifika emyuziyam ifakwa kuluhlu lwezinto ezifumanekileyo inikwe inombolo ngokolo luhlu, igama lalowo wenze isipho, imvelaphi yesipho nenkcaza ngaso konke oku kubhalwa kuluhlu lwezinto ezifikayo. Xa oko kugqityiwe umgcini myuziyam uthi athathe isigqibo sokuba oko kuhlaliswa kwigumbi logcino-mpahla zemyuziyam okanye kuboniswa ngayo loo nto, Ukuba loo nto kuza kubukiswa ngayo, umgcini-myuziyam uthi asebenzise olaa lwazi ebelufake kolwa luhlu luneengcombolo zaloo nto kwakunye nolunye ulwazi abanalo kuphando abalwenzileyo ngento leyo. Umgcini-myuziyam unakho ukuthatha isigqibo sokwamkela okanye angamkeli izinto eziziswa emyuziyam. Ezinye iimyuziyam zithe zasungula imigaqo-nkqubo yokwamkela okanye zingamkeli izinto eziziswa emyuziyam.

Olu khetho ludala usukuzwano kwiimyuziyam nezinto eziziswayo kuba kufanele kuthathwe isigqibo sokuba zeziphi ezibalulekileyo izeziphi ezingabalulekanga izinto. Iimyuziyam zindawo zoluntu ezibalulekileyo kakhulu ngoba zizo ezakhayo nezibuyisela ulwazi ngoluntu. Azijolisanga kuphela ekubiyiseleni ubunjani bezinto ngaphambili koko ziyazenza zibe luqilima zibonakale xa zisetyenziswa okanye kusenziwa imiboniso ngazo.

IMyuziyam yaseAlbany yayicingisisa le mbonakalo namandla angummangaliso xa yayiceba ukwenza umboniso ozigocagocayo. Lo mboniso owawubizwa ngokuba ngu-declassification wathi ke waxhonywa kwumyuziyam yembali yase-Albany. Lo mboniso ke wawuligalelo lomyuziyam kwingxoxo-mpikiswano eyayikho kwiDyunivesithi kaRhodes emalunga nobuhlanga.

Le ngoxo mpikiswano eRhodes yavunjululwa ngabafundi ngexesha le midlao eyayiphakathi kwedyunivesithi ezintathu eyayibanjelwe apho. Aba bafundi baye bathuka esinye sezifundiwa u Gqirha Banda bemyuca ngobuhlanga bephantsi kwempembelelo zenyembezi zikaVitoliya. Isiphatha mandla saleDyunivesithi uGqirha Badat waye wasungula iphulo elichasene nobuhlanga. Nayo ke imyuziyam yayiphenjelelwe nazingamango zika Lynch no Alberti xa besithi “ iimyuziyam zibe yinxalenye yokwakhiwa kwezigaba zengcamango ezisekele ubuhlanga ukusukela mandulo uzakuthi ga ngoku ngokuchasene negalelo lazo labumini lokufuna ukuba ngogalel ebhayini”.

U declassification wayenzelwe ukuba ube ngumboniso wokuzigocagoca ojolise kwiinkqubo zemyuziyam. “Ufundo ngeemyuziyam nokuzigocagoca lutshintsho lwendlela esicinga ngayo ngeemyuziyam” , utsho uShelley Butler. “Oku kujolise kwiinkqubo zemyuziyam ngokwayo ekufana nokuqokelelwa kwezinto, ukuhlelwa kwazo nenkcubeko yokubekwa kwazo emyuziyam, ufundo ngemyuziyam nokuzigocagoca kwazo lubonisa ngohlobo ekwenziwa ngalo imiboniso yezinye iinkcubeko mhlawumbi lube luhlobo olungakhethiyo. Imiboniso ithi yenziwe ngenxa yenkcubeko, imbali, amaziko nepolitiki yabo Bantu ibachaphazelayo”.

Lo mboniso wawuquka izifundo ezininzi ngokohlobo owenziwe ngalo yaza loo nto yanegalelo elimangalisayo ekuqokelelweni kwezinto ezizezase-Albany Museum ngokusisigxina. Lo mboniso ufikelela futhi ungqamane nezinye zezifundo zilandelayo i-anthropholoji, nengqokelela yembali nobugcisa. Le miboniso ikhethwe kumasebe ahlukeneyo asemyuziyam noluhlu lokuqokelelwa yimyuziyam kwasetyenziswa njengesixhobo senkqubo yokhetho. Okwanxulumanisa oko kwakukhethiwe ukuze kuphume umboniso kungenxa yokuba okwakuqokelelwe kwabalwa kuluhlu lokubhala okungenisiweyo emyuziyam ngokobuhlanga umzekelo “aBantu’, ‘oKafile’, ‘oonoqhakankcu’ ‘nabangokuzalwa’ balapho njalo njalo. Okunye okucatshuliweyo kwakufumaneka kwinzululwazi yakudala nakwezinye iincwadi kusetyenziswa le ndlela inye.

Oku kwakuyeyona njongo yokwenza lo mboniso ingakumbi ukubona indlela ulwazi lobuhlanga olwalungalo, mhlambi nendlela oluhlala luyiyo nolumiswe ngayo ngokweenkqubo zokubekwa kwezinto kwaye kukhona imibuzo ekhoyo ngokubekiselele kutshintsho olwenzekileyo kwiimyuziyam zonke. Utshontsho kwiimyuziyam belujongwa njengelinge likarhulumente ekuzameni ukufaka abo Bantu babengangeniswanga bona kwinkqubo zeemyuziyam ngurhulumente wangaphambili. Nangona yena uLeslie Witz ekucacisa mhlophe ukuba nangona zicikozwa ezindlela kodwa zinyathelelwe phantsi yinto ebizwa ngokuba yi ‘dilemma label’ apho kwenziwa “iileyibheli zize zibekwe kwimiboniso esele okhona. Uxoxa athi ‘ezi dilemma labels zingacacisa nangakubi kodwa ziphelwa zibekwa kule miboniso ngokusisigxina”.

Ezi rejista zigcina ulwazi ngezinto ezikhoyo emyuziyam zizizixhobo ezibalulekileyo kakhulu. Olu lwazi lufakwe kule rejista lusetyenziswa ekuchazeni uhlobo lwento leyo kwaye lulo olunika umkhombandlela kuhlobo umgcini-myuziyam enza ngalo umboniso. Ukuze ubani enze ingqiqo ngoko kukwirejista kubalulekile ukuba kufakwe ngokwendawo yayo, ngokwenkcazelo lufakwe nangokweenkqubo ezisetyenziswa zimyuziyam. Iinkqubo zokuzifaka ezi zinto zibhalwa kwirejista yokuzigcina, zibekwe ngokwamanani, zihlaliswe ngokwendawo zazo zize ziboniswe njengezixhobo eziboniswa emyuziyam.

Oku kuhlela, inombolo nogcino kuko okunika intsingiselo ngento leyo. Ngokohlobo oluqhelekileyo lweemyuziyam, abantu abandwendwela iimyuziyam abanalungelo lokufikelela kwiirejista ezinolwazi ngezinto zasemyuziyam, oku kuyimfihlo kwaye kugcinwa bucala-kugcinwe phantsi kweliso elibukhali ngamaxesha amaninzi kuyatixelwa esefini.

U declassification
ivulele ithuba lokubonisa ukuba kwenzeka ntoni xa ulwazi ebelugcinwe emfihlakalweni luthi luvezwe esiluntwini ngohlobo lokusebenzisa imiboniso? Kwenzeka ntoni kwindlela ezihlelwa ngayo ezi zinto? Kumaxesha amaninzi kubakho umahluko phakathi kwezinto ezigcinwe kule rejista okanye kuvimba wolwazi nezo ziphela sezifikelela eluntwini. Lo mboniso wenziwa kanye ngokwale ngqiqo yokuba Lonke ulwazi kuquka nolo lobuhlanga luyaqulunqwa, iimyuziyam ziindawo apho kuqulunqwa iindlela zokugcina olu lwazi, lwenziwe lube luqilima futhi lube semthethweni. Umboniso wokurhoxiswa kokubhengezwa komthetho wemiba yasemyuziyam ojolise ekuthatheni iinkqubo ezenziwa yimyuziyam ezithi zifihlwe eluntwini, zizise eluntwini ukuze lona luzihle amahlongwane.

U Declassification njengomboniso wokuzigocagoca wawenzelwa ukuba ababuki beze neyabo indlela abatolika ngayo lo mboniso. Iinkcazelo ezikhutshwa kwirejista yezinto ezifunyenwe yimyuziyam zasuswa kwezi zinto ukwenzela ukuba uluntu linike ingqiqo yalo njengoko oko kuchasene neenkqubo zasemyuziyam zokubeka inkcazelo kwinto nganye eboniswayo. Ukuze lo mboniso ube ngumboniso onomxholo iqela labantu lamiswa ukunika ingcaciso ngeenjongo zalo mboniso.

Iindlela neenkqubo ezaziwayo zemiboniso zasetyenziswa ekutsaleni umdla kwenye indlela yokuqokelela, ifumane ize ihlele izinto ngokohlobo lwazo. Oko kuthetha ukuba umboniso wasemyuziyam ukujongela phantsi indlela ekuqokelelwa ngayo izinto yimyuziyam. Nqu nesihloko salo mboniso sasisusela kwingcingane ephangaleleyo kakhulu. Okokuqala nokubalulekileyo lo mboniso wenziwa ngendlela efanelekileyo yokuhlela izinto ezifunyenwe yimyuziyam.

Okwesibini, icacisa indlela apho ulwazi oluyimfihlo olugcinwa kwirejista yezinto ezingeniswa emyuziyam oluthi luvezwe ekuhleni ngokusebenzisa imiboniso. Nesihloko somboniso siyabonisa ngendlela apho ulwazi olufumaneke emyuziyam eluncede ngayo ekwahluleni iintlanga nezizwe ngokwamaqela asemthethweni. Lilonke ke lo mboniso ubonisile ukuba ulwazi ngokobuhlanga asinto esizelwe nayo koko yinto eyenziwe luluntu namaziko afana neemyuziyam awayephambili ekwenzeni lo msebenzi. Ulwazi luyindlela yokusikhumbuza ngezinto futhi ke iimyuziyam ngamaziko oluntu ajongene nokwenza olo lwazi lufumaneke eluntwini. Njengoko uSean Field esithi “ iinkumbulo asilulo uyilo olusephepheni nolusisigxina lwemvelaphi koko zenziwa zinyanzelwe ngohlobo ounzima ukuluqonda. Iinkumbulo ziiseti zolwazi umntu alufumeneyo, imifanekiso-ngqondweni neemvakalelo ezivezwa ukufezekisa iimfuno ezithile kwakunye noxinzelelo lwexesha langoku”.

Kungenxa yolu xinzelelo olubangele ukuba i-Albany Museum izame ukuthabatha eli thuba lokuzihlola ekungafundini oko sele ikwazi. Mhlawumbi umntu angazicingela ukuba umboniso ofana nalo ungaba ngumkhombandlela kwiingxoxo zokulwa ucalucalulo nezobuyiswano. Nangona naye uCatherine Lambley ebonisa kwiphepha lakhe ebelandlale kwiNkomfa yeeMyuziyam zoMzantsi Afrika apho wayesitsho khona ukuba kuyamangalisa ukuqaphela ukuba ingxelo ebuya eluntwini ngomba kadeclassification inqabile kakhulu. Imibuzo yaphakanyiswa ejolise ekuphuhliseni umboniso osisenzo sokuzigocagoca ojolise kuCalucalulo kwixesha apho iimyuziyam zoMzantsi Afrika zikwinkqubo yazo yoPhuhliso noLwakhiwo ngokutsha kwazo. Apho zonke ziphantsi koMgaqo-nkqubo woTshintsho woMzantsi Afrika kwaye oko kuze nemiboniso enjongo ikukuguqula ukungalingani kwamaqela enkcubeko.

Kungenzeka ukuba inzolo eyayikho ngokubhekiselele kumboniso yayisenzeka ngenxa yeengxoxo ezazikho kwalapho kufutshane kwiDyuniveithi yaseRhodes. Mhlawumbi kungenzeka ukuba kunzima nje ukuyiqonda le nto kungenxa yoko kuchazwa nguCrowley noMatthews abathi xa bethetha “ ngaphandle kwenkcazelo eyaneleyo yocalucalulo, inkqubo yobuyiswano ngokobuhlanga ifana nje nenkcitha-xesha".

Nanjengoko udeclassification angazange aphumelele ekuphuhliseni ingxoxo yokulwa nocalu-calulo kodwa uphumelele ekunikeni iingxaki kwiinkqubo ekusetyenzwa ngazo kwiimyuziyam apho abaninzi besithi ziinkqubo ezingenakuchukunyiswa.


Ukusonga intetho yam ndingathanda ukuthi singabasebenzi basemyuziyam kufanele sinyamekele isilumkiso sika Dipesh Chakrabarty xa esiyala esithi “kungaphaya kolwazi lopolitiko ukuba kusoloko kukho isikhala maxesha onke, ukususela kumanqanaba abo bacinizelweyo, abo vimba benu bolwazi babubo ubuvuvu ngoba thina sinaso isakhono”.

* Le ncoko iguqulelwe esiXhoseni ngu Vuyokazi Stofile.

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